Facilities for Disabled
As per the countrywide sample survey conducted by National Sample Survey Organisation in 1991, there were 14.56 million disabled persons in India suffering from visual, speech, hearing and locomotor disabilities. In order to bring these persons into the main stream of development and enable them to make a decent living and contribute to national life, a number of measures have been initiated in various fields. This brochure describes the facilities available in the fields of education and employment.
Who are the disabled ?
Disabled persons include the blind, the deaf, the orthopaedically handicapped, the negative lepers and the mild mentally retarded persons. (for more specific definitions, please see Appendix ‘A’).
Organisations providing facilities to the Disabled
The problem of rehabilitating the disabled is tackled at various levels – by the Central Government, State Governments, and by Voluntary Organisations. In the Central Government, the Ministry of welfare plays a major role in framing policies and programmes for the handicapped. All State Governments and Union territories in India have established Social Welfare of the handicapped. The Voluntary Sector also plays a very important role in providing welfare and rehabilitation services for the Disabled.
While the disabled children may attend the regular schools there are also special schools for the disabled children. Most of these special schools are located in Urban areas. Voluntary Organisations are taking major initiative in opening special schools in the country. The Ministry of Welfare provides financial assistance to these organisations to establish special schools. A few special schools offer vocational training in trades like tailoring, carpentry, book binding etc. There are four national institutes in the area of visual, hearing, mental and locomotor disability which organise regular programmes for the training of teachers for the training of teachers for the handicapped. The Scheme has been transferred to the Department of Education since 1982.
Under the Integrated Education Scheme for Disabled operated by the Department of Education, handicapped children are sought to be integrated in the normal school system. Hundred per cent assistance is provided to states and UTs for education of the children suffering from certain mild handicap in common schools with the help of necessary aids, incentives and specially trained teachers.
The following types of disabled children are covered under this Scheme:
(1) Children with locomotor handicaps ( Orthopedic Handicapped )
(2) Mildly and moderately hearing impaired.
(3) Partially sighted Children.
(4) Mentally handicapped – educable group ( with IQ 50 – 70 ).
(5) Children with multiple handicaps ( Blind and Orthopedic ) hearing impaired and orthopaedic, educable mentally retarded and orthopaedic, visual impaired and mild hearing handicapped.
(6) Children with learning disabilities.
The Scheme provides the following facilities:-
(1) The Handicapped Children are provided certain allowances as indicated below:-
(a) Books and stationery allowances of Rs. 400 per annum.
(b) Actual expenses on uniform upto Rs. 200 per annum.
(c) Transport allowances of Rs. 50 per month.
(d) Reader allowance of Rs. 50 per month in case of blind children after Class V.
(e) Escort allowance for severely handicapped children with lower extremely disabilities @ 75 per month.
(f) Actual cost of equipment subject to a maximum of Rs. 2000 per student for a period of five years.
(2) The severely orthopaedically handicapped children to bring one attendant is allowed for 10 children to bring one attendant is allowed for 10 children in a school. The attendant is given the standard scale of pay prescribed for Group ‘D’ employees in the States/U.T. concerned.
(3) Disabled Children residing in school hostel within the same institution where they are studying may also be paid boarding and lodging charges as admissible under the State Govt.Rules/Schemes. where there is no state of Scheme of Scholarship to hostlers the disabled children, income of whose parents does not exceed Rs. 5000 per month may be paid actual boarding and lodging charges subject to a maximum of Rs. 200 p.m.
(4) Severely orthopaedically handicapped children residing in school hostels may need the assistance of a helper or ayah. A special pay of Rs. 50 p.m. is admissible to any employee of the hostel willing to extend such help to Children in addition to his/ her duties.
(5) In a school in rural areas where at least 10 handicapped children are enrolled, capital cost for purchase of school rickshaw for free use of these children and expenses for Rickshaw Puller @ Rs. 300 p.m. will be provided under the scheme. In such cases, no transport allowances will be payable to the Students.
Junior and post-Doctoral fellowships are awarded by the U. G. C. A Post-Doctoral fellowships is of Rs. 2100 per month While Junior Fellowship is Rs. 1800 per month. The duration of a Post-Doctoral (Fellowship (P.D.F.) is two years and that of a Junior Fellowship (J.R.F.) is four years. In the third years of the ( J.R.F.) the scholar jis entitled to Rs. 2100 per month on the basis of his work done in the first two years. In addition to the monthly payment an annual contingent grant of Rs.4000 or Rs. 300 is paid to Post- Doctoral or Junior Fellow respectively .
In the case of blind scholars, U.G.C. Provides a special grant to cover the appointment of a reader. The University Grant Commission has reserved 1% of the fellowships allocated to the universities or atleast one award per year to the handicapped persons.
Facilities in Employment
Several facilities have been provided to handicapped persons in the field of employment by Central as well as state Governments so that these people may become independent. Some of them are as follows:
1.Ministry of Welfare has made an in-depth study of various jobs done in Government Offices and Public Sector Undertakings. The study has identified about 1100 jobs suitable for handicapped persons. Physical requirements needed have also been identified. A number of jobs under Group ‘A’ and ‘B’ are there that can be done by handicapped persons. There are instructions by the Govt. that in these jobs disabled persons should be given preference. The list of identified jobs is available in the Publication “Brochure on reservations and Concessions for Physically Handicapped in Central Government Services” brought out by Ministry of personnel, Public Grievance and Pensions. Department of Personnel and Training.
2. The Govt. of India has reserved 3% of Vacancies in Group ‘C’ and ‘D’ posts in the Central Government Services against ‘identified jobs’ one per cent each of the blind, the Deaf and the Orthopaedically handicapped. Some public Sector Under takings such as Banks. Railways also follow this Most of the States have also 3% reservation while other States have their own reservation policies.
3.Upper age is relaxable upto 10 years for appointment to Clerical and Subordinate Cadre posts.
4. Physically Handicapped persons who are otherwise qualified to hold Clerical posts and who are certified as being unable to type have been exempted from typing qualifications.
5.In the Case of holders of Group ‘C’ Group ‘D’ posts who have been recruited on basis and who are handicapped may be given postings as far as possible near their native places within the region. Requests from physically handicapped employees for transfer to or near their native places may also be given preference.
6. In Banks relaxation in minimum educational qualification has also been provided , for Clerical cadre the minimum educational requirement for physically handicapped person is IInd Division in Matric or IIIrd Division in Higher Secondary Examinations.
7. University Grants Commission has instructed Universities with regard to recruitment of the physically handicapped – when qualified blind persons are available for appointment of teaching posts in the University / Colleges. They should not be ignored because of their handicap.
They should be employed for tutorial work in certain subjects.
These persons should be given preference for appointment in the teaching music.
Government of India has introduced several other schemes to promote employment/self-employment among disabled population – Government provides assistance to Voluntary Organisation for training and Sheltered workshops. Banks Provide loans at low interest rates to promote Self-employment. Certain Categories of handicapped are allotted public telephone booths and other types of shops such as tea stalls.
The Ministry of Petroleum, Chemicals and Fertilizers provides reservation in dealership/distributorship in the agencies of public Sector Oil Companies. This relaxation is as follows:
(i) Physically handicapped . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 ½ %
(ii) Defence personnel who are permanently or severely disabled due to war or while on duty 7½ %
The handicapped persons under Govt. Services are provided conveyance allowance as per rules.
Institution that are importing equipment and apparatus for education and training of the handicapped are exempted from Custom duty including the braille wrist watches.
Residential houses are allotted to the handicapped persons who are in Govt. service on a priority basis. The Delhi Development Authority has reserved 5% of shops, 10% residential plots and 1% flats in each housing scheme for the disabled persons.
Concessional tickets are available to these persons for travelling by rail or by Air. Persons having their own vehicles are exempted from paying road tax and petrol is provided on Concessional rates.
Ministry of Welfare provides assistance to disabled persons for purchase and fitting of aids and appliances for their physical rehabilitation in order to increase their capacity to participate in economic activities.
Some Specialized Institutes working for Rehabilitation of Handicapped
The Central Government has established four national institutions-----
(i) The National Institute for Visually Handicapped, Rajpur Road, Dehradun.
(ii) The National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped, B.T. Road, Bonhoolgy, Calcutta.
(iii) The National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped Manovikas Nagar, Benrempaly, Secunderabad, A.P.
(iv) The National Institute for the Hearing Handicapped, K.C. Marg, Bandra, Bombay.
These Institutes are responsible for manpower development, growth of Suitable service models, research, development of educational and vocational aids at low cost to help the disabled. They also serve as premier information and documentation centers in their respective areas of disability. They also operate their evaluation and training Center for Adult Blind at Dehradun offers training in a wide range of crafts such as Radio Egg. Light Egg. Chair Canning, Weaving, Soap making etc. Some of these Institutes also have sheltered workshops where employment can be provided to a limited number of Handicapped persons.
Besides, there are several other national bodies that are looking after the training and service programmes for the handicapped. Some of these are – All India Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Bombay; All India Institute of Rehabilitation and Artificial Limbs, Madras; The National Institute for Physically and Orthotic Training, Bhubaneswar, etc. There are several Rehabilitation Service Centers also engaged in research activities. Some important Centers are-
(i) All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.
(ii) Sawai Man Singh Hospital, jaipur.
(iii) Medical College, Trivandrum.
(iv) Regional Artifical Limb Centre, Lucknow.
(v) St. Martha’s Hospital, Bangalore.
(vi) National Institute for Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore.
(vii) Nair Hospital, Bombay.
(viii) P.G. Hospital, Calcutta.
(ix) Artificial Limb Manufacturing Corporation, Kanpur.
District Rehabilitation Centres
In order to serve disabled in rural areas, Govt. has set up District Rehabilitation Centres. Under the Scheme each Village Consisting of 1000 people has been assigned a village rehabilitation worker to identify the needs of disabled persons. For a cluster of 20 to 30 villages a primary Rehabilitation Assistant is being appointed and a block consisting of about 1,50,000 people a primary Health Centre works to assist handicapped in getting Vocational training, appropriate education and employment. It also helps the disabled to get aids and appliances. In this hierarchy, there is a District Rehabilitation Centre over a population ranging from 1 to 1.5 million. The Regional Training Centres in the State or region serve as the Referral Centres from the DRC. These Centres provide advanced physical restoration, Vocational Counseling and professional manpower training Services. Presently DRCs are functioning at Bhiwani (Haryana), Bilaspur (M.P.), Changalpath (T.N.), Jagdishpur (U.P.), Kharakpur (West Bengal), Kota (Rajasthan), Mysore (Karnataka), Sitapur (U.P), Vijayawada (A.P), Virar ( Maharashtra) , Bhubaneshwar ( Orissa).
Vocational Rehabilitation Centres
Seventeen VRCs for the Handicapped are functioning at Ludhiana, Delhi, Kanpur, Calcutta, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Baroda, Ahmedabad, Madras, Bombay, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Trivandrum, Bhubaneshwar, Guwaahati, Agartala and patana (List Appendix B). The main purpose of these Centres is to assess the residual Capacity of the physically handicapped and recommendoccupations suited to them. VRCs also arrange for their training in industries as apprentices and in other training institutions. These Centres also provide placement services. The five categories of Handicapped persons – the Deaf, the Blind, Orthopaedically Handicapped, Mildly retarded and Negative Leprosy persons may avail the services provided by VRCs. Some training Workshops on trades such as Radio Assembly, Metal, Commercial, Carpentry, Tailoring are also functioning at VRCs to provide training and evaluate skills possessed by an individual. The individuals get a stipend of Rs. 100 during evaluation period of month. No fees is taken from the candidates for evaluation and other services provided by these Centres. Assistance is also available for procuring financial aid for purchase of Artificial limbs and other aids. Centres also provide help in setting own ventures in terms of arranging finances, allotment of shops, telephone booths etc. 17 Vocational Rehabilitation Centres are functioning under DGE&T, Ministry of Labour. The rehabilitation services have been extended to the handicapped living in rural areas. This is done through Mobile camps and 11 Rural Rehabilitation Extension Centres (RRECs) set up in 11 Blocks under 5 VRCs situated at Bombay, Calcutta, Kanpur, Ludhiana and Madras.
The Voluntary Organisations
A large number of Voluntary organisations has sprung-up in recent years for the Cause of handicapped persons. As per the Directory published by the Instt. for the Physically Handicapped, New Delhi. There are about 8000 such institutions. About 80 per cent of these organisations are located in Andra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Delhi. A large majority of the Organisations are in the big cities.
SPECIAL EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES
Special Employment Exchanges have been established in some State Capitals and special Capitals and Special cells in other employment exchanges. These exchanges exclusively register physically handicapped persons seeking jobs. They also arrange for their placement both in public and private sector. The number of special Employment Exchanges in India is 23 while the number of special cells in ordinary exchanges is 55.
DEFINITIONS OF DISABILITY OF VARIOUS CATEGORIES
(1) The Blind –
Suffering from either of the following:
A. Total absence of sight.
B. Visual acquity not exceeding 6/60 or 20/200 (snellen) in the better eye with correcting lenses.
C. Limitation of the field of vision substanding an angle of 20 degree or worse.
(2) The Deaf-
The deaf are those in whom the sense of hearing is nonfunctional for ordinary purposes of life. They do not hear / understand sounds at all events with complified speech . The cases included in this category will be those having hearing loss more than 90 decibles in the better ear (profound impairment) or total loss of hearing in both the ears.
(3)The Orthopaedically Handicapped-
The OH are those who have a physical defect or deformity which causes interference with normal functioning of bones, muscles and joints.
(4)The Negative Lepers:
Cured and non-infunctions leprosy Patients.
(5) The Mild Mentally Retarded-
Those having an I.Q. varying from 51 to 70 can develop social and communication, Skills, can learn academic skills approximately upto 6th grade level, can achieve social and vocational skills adequate to minimum self support , needs assistance under usual social or economic stress.
LIST OF VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION CENTRE FOR HANDICAPPED
S. No. Name and Address of VRC
1. VRC for Handicapped, ITI, Kuber Nagar, Ahmedabad – 382 340.
2. VRC for Handicapped, Sicon, C.T.I. Campus, Bombay-400 002.
3. VRC for Handicapped, 38, B.R. Lane, Beliaghata, Calcutta- 700 010.
4. VRC for Handicapped, 22/1, Hasur Road, Banglore-560029
5. VRC for Handicapped, I.T.I., Pusa, New Delhi-110012.
6. VRC for Handicapped, 4-SA 23, Jawahar Nagar, Jaipur-302 004.
7. VRC for Handicapped, A.T.I. Campus, Vidya Nagar, Hyder-abad- 500768.
8. VRC for Handicapped , Napier Town, Jabalpur –482001.
9. VRC for Handicapped, C.T.I., Gobind Nagar, Kanpur-22.
10. VRC for Handicapped, ATI, Gill Road, Ludhiana-141003.
11. VRC for Handicapped, C.T.I., Guindy, Madras-600039.
12. VRC for Handicapped, Rehbari, Guwahati-781008,Assam.
13. VRC for Handicapped, Nalachira, Trivandrum-15.
14. VRC for Handicapped, SIRC Campus, Unit VIII, Bhubanes-war-12.
15. VRC for Handicapped, Mahadev Industrial Estate Bahucha- Raji Road, karejibaug, Baroda-390018.
16. VRC for Handicapped, C/O Director Employment and Manp power Planning, Agartala.
17. VRC for Handicapped, Plot No. 1 (A-84) Gandhi Vihar Patna (Bihar).
ADDRESSES OF THE SPECIAL EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES FOR PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED (RUNNING)
1. The Regional Employment Officer. Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Azamabad, Hyderabad-500020.
2. The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for physically Handicapped, Barrack No. 1/ E-5, Block No.1/E-5, Block A, Curzon Road, New Delhi.
3. The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange For Physically Handicapped, No. 5, Crescent Road, High Grounds, West Bangalore – 560020.
4.The Special Employment Officer,Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Merchanitile Chambers, 3rd Floor,Graham Road, Ballard Estate, Bombay-400001.
5. The Sub-Regional Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Block No. 2, Gill Road, Ludhiana, Punjab.
6. The Assistant Director, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, 33, Mount Road, Nandanam, Madras-600035.
7. The Special Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Behala Industrial Estate, 620,D.H. Road, Calcutta-700034.
8. The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, G. T. Road, Kanpur-208002.
9. The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for physically Handicapped, Nadavanam Road, Palayam, Trivandrum, Kerala.
10. The Employment officer, Special Employment Exchange for physically Handicapped, 965, Wright Town, Jabalpur-482001.
11. The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Combined Labour Building,Bailey Road, Patna-800001.
12. The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, 1282, Sector 13-C, Chandigarh-160018.
13. The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Dte. of Employment and Training (H.P.), Stock Palace, Simla- 171002.
14. The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Jaipur-302001 (Rajasthan).
15. The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Dte. of Employment, Flat No. 367, Sahid Nagar, Bhubaneshwar-751007 (Orissa)
16. The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Guwahati, Assam.
17. The Employment Officer, Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Agartala, Tripura.
18. The Sub-Regional Employment Officer for Physically Hand- Capped, Kotli Building, Baroda (Gujarat).
19. The Sub-Regional Employment Officer for Physically Handi- capped, Multistorey Building,Nanpura, Surat, Gujarat.
20. The Sub-Regional Employment Officer for Physically Handi-Capped, Kopasiwala Bungalow,Junction Plot Rajkot, Gujarat.
21. The Special Employment Officer,
Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Salajose Cross Road, Opp. S.V.College, Ahmedabad-380001.
22. The Director.
Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped, Manipur, Imphal.